PETROVIETNAM SPOTLIGHT/ How to use 50 synonyms to “majority” concisely
The Viet Nam National Oil and Gas Group (PetroVietnam) and Russian oil and gas group Rosneft will set up a joint venture company to explore two oil wells in Pechora Sea. Rosneft is also in talks to buy Chevron’s stake in gas fields off southern Viet Nam for about US$200 million. PetroVietnam, Japan’s Mitsui&Co and Thailand’s PTT Exploration&Production are partners in the Chevron project and have the first option on any stake that is put up for sale.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the country and the majority of the two million tons per annum demand for fertilizers is met through imports from China. The Ca Mau fertiliser complex was engineered, procured and constructed (EPC) by a Chinese consortium of China National Machinery Imports and Exports and Wuhuan Engineering. It is located in Khánh An, in the district of U Minh of the Ca Mau province, in southern Vietnam. The plant is located in proximity to the Mekong Delta, one of the largest fertilizer consumption regions. The site has excellent water transportation infrastructure through the rivers.
The project generated about 10,000 jobs during its construction and hired about 400 permanent employees for plant operations. First urea shipment from the plant was made in January 2012. PetroVietnam is currently the 100% owner of the plant. It has plans to sell up to 49% of the plant’s equity to foreign investors.
The nitrogen fertilizer plant is part of the $1.4bn Ca Mau gas-power-fertiliser complex. The complex includes a 330km gas transfer pipeline and two 750MW combined cycle gas-fuelled thermal power plants. Power plants were constructed in December 2008 by LILAMA, while Siemens was the main equipment supplier. The complex occupies an area of 52ha in a low wetland area. It is expected to generate $1.62bn in output and about 12,000 direct jobs.
The plant requires about 500 million cubic metres of natural gas feedstock to meet its output of 800,000t/y nitrogen fertiliser capacity. The gas is transported to the complex via an 18in pipeline from the PM3 field, supplied by Ca Mau Gas, a subsidiary of PetroVietnam, and the Cai Nuoc reservoirs. The pipeline runs for about 298km offshore and 27km onshore, between Vietnam and Malaysia. Built by Vietsovpetro in 2007, it has a capacity to transport two billion cubic metres of natural gas a year. It is also used to fuel the power plants at the complex.
About 30% of the total investment of the project was made by PetroVietnam. The remaining 70% was funded through foreign and local bank loans. Vietnam Development Bank provided a loan of $180m while VietinBank lent $220m towards the project’s fruition.
PetroVietnam has been operating a 740,000t/y capacity urea plant at Phu My through its subsidiary, PetroVietnam Fertilizers & Chemicals Joint Stock Corporation (PVFCCo), since September 2004. These two plants, together, are expected to meet about 60% of the country’s fertilizer demand. Ha Bac Nitrogenous Fertilizer and Chemicals Company operates a 180,000t/y fertilizer plant, with a planned production expansion by 2014. Other new plants to be established between 2012 and 2014 include the 560,000t/y Ninh Binh fertiliser plant and the 560,000t/y Cong Thanh fertilizer Plant.
Define the synonyms and use them concisely
1. Bulk, bunch, band, block, batch, bevy, brood, breed
A bulk of time, a bunch of bananas, a band of bees, a block of ice, a batch of chicks, a bevy of blossoms, a brood of mice, a breed of dogs
2. Cord, clot, crowd, corpus, crush, crew, corps, cluster, covey, clutch
A cord of firewood, a clot of blood, a crowd of monsters, a corpus of conversations, a crush of powder, a crew of sailors, a corps of giraffes, a cluster of cells, a covey of doves, a clutch of ducks
3. Group, gob, gang, gathering
A group of people, a gob of money, a gang of thugs, a gathering of friends
4. Horde, host, hunk, heap, herd, hatch
A hord of savages, a host of anngels, a hunk of meat, a heap of porpcorn, a herd of deer, a hatch of turtles
5. Load, lot, lump
A load of dirt, a lot of money, a lump of clay
6. Mob, mound, majority, mountain, multitude
A mob of crows, a mound of earth, a majority of population, a mountain of mysteries, a multitude of ways
7. Sum, staple, stack, stockpile, swarm
A sum of 5, a staple of diet, a stack of books, a stockpile of breast milk, a swarm of bees
8. Throng, legion, rout, drove, troupe, posse, flock, litter
A throng of foes, a legion of soldiers, a rout of wolves, a drove of oxen, a troupe of actors, a posse of princesses, a flock of seagulls, a litter of kittens
9. Fertilizer, manure, compost, mulch, dung, humus, guano
Fruit tree fertilizers, home manure, plastic compost, natural mulch, animal dung, forest humus, seabird guano
10. Site, bivouac, lair, den, habitat, niche, bar, haunt, hangout, abode, resort, retreat
A tourist site, a military bivouac, tiger lair, opium den, open water habitat, market niche, liquor bar, donkey haunt, friends hangout, hotel abode, reef ocean resort, village retreat
11. Procure, acquire, reserve, earn, solicit
Procure employment, acquire training, reserve a room, earn respect, solicit funds
12.Toward, regarding, concerning, as for, as to, with respect to, with regard to, with reference to
Toward the sun, regarding the pains of others, concerning the spiritual in art, as for me and my household, as to grammar rule, with respect to the income statement, with regard to public opinion, with reference to the diagram