There’s no point to distinguish Philosophiae Doctor from Doctor of Philosophy. This same expression says the exact doctor’s degree or doctoral degree awarded by universities. In most countries before earning this academic degree students are called doctoral students. Canadians tend to omit the period and Americans use it as Ph.D instead of PhD.

Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research. Criteria for research doctorates vary and may take the form of a single thesis or dissertation or a portfolio of shorter project reports in the form of thesis by publication. The time required to complete a research doctorate varies from three years, excluding undergraduate study, to six years or more.

The best-known research degree includes  Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D., or D.Phil, Doctor of Education (D.Ed.), Doctor of Arts (D.A.), Doctor of Professional Studies, Doctor of Social Science (D.S.Sc.), Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.), Doctor of Management (D.Mgt.), Doctor of Information Security (D.I.S.), Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng.). The candidate’s submission is typically assessed by a committee of examiners. Candidates also typically undergo an oral examination by the committee.

Though not actually doctorates in most countries, such as the United States, professional “doctorates” are awarded in certain fields where there is no scholarly education and scholarly research. Examples include the US and Canadian degrees of Doctor of Medicine (D.M.), Doctor of Physical Therapy (D.P.T.), Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.), Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.), Doctor of Pharmacy (D.Pharm.), Doctor of Psychology (D.Psy), Doctor of Social Work (D.S.W.), Doctor of Behavioral Health (D.B.H.), Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.), Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.), and Doctor of Nursing Practice (D.N.P.). In Australia, the term is on occasion applied to the Scientiae Juridicae Doctor (S.J.D.).

There are five levels-A/ Tutor or Associate Lecturer, B/Lecturer, C/Senior Lecturer, D/Associate Professor and E/Professor. In order to receive the title of professor, the applicant must pass each university’s minimum standards statements and promotion policies. Three key attributes are examined- recognition, distinction and leadership. Leadership in research is arguably the most important. Some universities also expect leadership in developing the curriculum and in the teaching and management of staff and students. This is the hierarchy of academic recognition in capitalist countries but in the socialist it is up to the special board defined in the constitution and regarded as the national boad of doctoral recognition.


  1. Decide, make a decision, take a decision, come to a decision, make up one’s mind, make a choice, put an end to
  1. Take the resolution after judgment
  2. Have a resolution on which judgment is needed for an informed request
  3. Have a resolution by oneself
  4. Have a final resolution after thinking
  5. Able to have a final resolution on something –used in negative
  6. Have a final resolution after observing its reality
  7. Have a final resolution on abolishment
  1. Decide on, go for, opt for, settle on, pick out, single out, point out
  1. Have a resolution after careful thought
  2. Have a resolution after hesitation
  3. Have a particular resolution
  4. Have a resolution to show agreement
  5. Have a resolution from a group
  6. Have a resolution in separation
  7. Have a resolution in indication
  1. Resolve, solve, determine, choose, elect, select
  1. a.      Find a solution to a problem
  2. b.      Find the explanation to a question
  3. c.       Find the decisive factor to a matter
  4. d.      Find the appropriate factor
  5. e.       Find the best by vote
  6. f.        Find the special quality or value
  1. Nominate, designate, appoint, assign, delegate, deputize, depute, title, entitle
  1. a.      Find the candidate to a position
  2. b.      Give the name
  3. c.       Find the candidate to fill a position
  4. d.      Find the candidate for duty
  5. e.       Trust as the representative
  6. f.        Find the candidate for the deputy
  7. g.      Find another for authority
  8. h.      Give a title
  9. i.        Give a right

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