Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic drug that is used worldwide and rescues hundreds of millions of people from onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a disease caused by infection with the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. Symptoms include severe itching, bumps under the skin, and blindness. It is the second-most common cause of blindness due to infection, after trachoma. Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection causes a roughening of the inner surface of the eyelids. This roughening can lead to pain in the eyes, breakdown of the outer surface or cornea of the eyes, and eventual blindness. Lymphatic filariasis, considered globally as a neglected tropical disease (NTD), is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms. The adult worms only live in the human lymph system. The lymph system maintains the body’s fluid balance and fights infections.

It was discovered by Satoshi Ōmura and William C. Campbell, to whom the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded. It has been included on the Model List of Essential Medicines of the World Health Organization. It was developed in 1975 and has been widely used across the globe since the early 1980s.

Now, a team of researchers has found that a drug already available around the world can kill the coronavirus in a lab setting in just 48 hours. The FDA-approved drug can be used for repurposing to treat patients affected by COVID-19. Ivermectin is an FDA-approved anti-parasitic drug that has also been shown to be effective in vitro against a broad range of viruses including HIV, Dengue, Influenza and Zika virus. Ivermectin has also shown effectiveness in vitro against a wide range of other viruses, such as the influenza virus, Zika virus, and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

A collaborative study led by the Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) with the Peter Doherty Institute of Infection and Immunity (Doherty Institute), a joint venture of the University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne Hospital, has shown that an anti-parasitic drug already available around the world kills the virus within 48 hours.

“We found that even a single dose could essentially remove all viral RNA by 48 hours and that even at 24 hours there was a really significant reduction in it,” Dr Wagstaff said.

Dr Wagstaff cautioned that the tests conducted in the study were in vitro and that trials needed to be carried out in people. Dr Wagstaff made a previous breakthrough finding on Ivermectin in 2012 when she identified the drug and its antiviral activity with Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute’s Professor David Jans, also an author on this paper. Professor Jans and his team have been researching Ivermectin for more than 10 years with different viruses.

The researchers at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, have published their study in the journal Antiviral Research, showing how this already widely-used drug may help combat the current global pandemic rippling across continents. “Ivermectin is very widely used and seen as a safe drug. We need to figure out now whether the dosage you can use it in humans will be effective – that’s the next step,” Dr. Wagstaff added.


  1. BRAHMANIST: a religious and social system based on Brahmanism-the complex sacrificial religion that emerged in post-Vedic India (c. 900 BC) under the influence of the dominant priesthood (Brahmans), an early stage in the development of Hinduism- Brahmanism believes in the oneness of all beings and of all elements, forming the entity of Brahman, which is without any property or attributes- Vishnu – responsible for keeping all good things on Earth and bringing harmony when needed– Brahmanism believed in reincarnation, or that the soul would be reborn again.
  2. HINDU: a follower of Hinduism based on the earliest layers of the Vedas traceable to 2nd millennium BCE, with roots and customs dating back more than 4,000 years, originally called Sanathana Dharma, which means righteousness forever, called from the root word Indus by the Persians, who invaded India in the sixth century BC
  3. ZOROASTRIANIST: a follower of Zoroastrianism-a monotheistic pre-Islamic religion of ancient Persia founded by Zoroaster in the 6th century BC, a multi-faceted faith centered on a dualistic cosmology of good and evil, one universal, transcendent, supreme god, Ahura Mazda, or the ‘Wise Lord’. Ahura means ‘Being’ and Mazda means ‘Mind’ in Avestan language, worshipped individually at home, or in the open, facing a source of light, supposed to have instructed Pythagoras in Babylon and to have inspired the Chaldean doctrines of astrology and magic, influencing the development of Judaism and the birth of Christianity
  4. JUDAIST: one that believes in or practices Judaism, not a religion but a Law religionized, a sect with Judaism as a rite, with Simon ben Yohai, who might be termed the great Magician and Father of the Cabala, lastly Judah the Prince who compiled the Babylonian Talmud, and Moses de León (c. 1240 – 1305), known in Hebrew as Moshe ben Shem-Tov was a Spanish rabbi and Kabbalist who is considered the composer or redactor of the Zohar- Haredi Judaism consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism characterized by a strict adherence to halakha (Jewish law) and traditions, as opposed to modern values and practices. Hasidism, sometimes spelled Chassidism, and also known as Hasidic Judaism is a subgroup of Haredi Judaism that arose as a spiritual revival movement in the territory of contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe. Today, most affiliates reside in Israel and the United States.
  5. JAINIST: a flower of Jainism founded in India in the 6th century BC by the Jina Vardhamana Mahavira as a reaction against the teachings of orthodox Brahmanism teaching salvation by perfection through successive lives, and non-injury to living creatures, concerning for the welfare of every being in the universe and for the health of the universe itself
  6. CHRISTIAN: a person who has received Christian baptism or is a believer in Christianity primarily based upon the texts of the Old Testament and of the New Testament, the dominant religion of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great (AD 306–337), coming from St.Paul, from a devout Jewish family based in the city of Tarsus, who since the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD founded several Christian communities in Asia Minor and Europe;, touching the law as a Pharisee portrayed as to follow the laws, statutes, and legal interpretations not recorded in the Five Books of Moses-Oral Torah
  7. PROPHET: an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divine being and is said to speak on that entity’s behalf-Adam was the first human being and he is believed to have been the first prophet. Muslims believe he was created from clay by Allah– The prophets of Islam include: Adam, Idris (Enoch), Nuh (Noah), Hud (Heber), Saleh (Methusaleh), Lut (Lot), Ibrahim (Abraham), Ismail (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), Yaqub (Jacob), Yusuf (Joseph), Shu’aib (Jethro), Ayyub (Job), Dhulkifl (Ezekiel), Musa (Moses), Harun (Aaron), Dawud (David), Sulayman (Solomon), Ilyas (Elias)- By the time he died in 632, almost all the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam– Muslims often refer to Muhammad as the greatest of all Prophets– the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān-Following Muhammad’s death in 632, Abu Bakr as the Muhammad’s closest companion and adviser succeeded in the leadership of the Muslim community and the first Rashidun Caliph– during his reign that the revelations dictated by Muhammad were compiled in the form of the Islamic holy scripture: the Quran– almost all the prophets of the Quran will be familiar to those who know the Bible- Anyone with a basic understanding of the categories of Aristotle’s thought employed by Christian and Jewish thinkers would find many of the arguments of Islamic philosophers and theologians familiar- He influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophies during the Middle Ages from the 5th to the late 15th century- Aristotle had been a Jew flourished in Jewish intellectual circles
  8. PRIEST: a mallet used to kill fish caught when angling; ordained minister of the Catholic, Orthodox, or Anglican Church having the authority to perform certain rites and administer certain sacraments
  9. CLERGYMAN: a male priest, minister, or religious leader, especially a Christian one
  10. CHURCHMAN: a male member of the Christian clergy or of a Church
  11. CLERIC: a priest or religious leader, especially a Christian or Muslim one
  12. MINISTER: a member of the clergy, especially in Protestant churches
  13. PASTOR: a minister in charge of a Christian church or congregation
  14. PARSON: a beneficed member of the clergy       
  15. VICAR: a member of the clergy in charge of a chapel
  16. RECTOR: a member of the clergy who has charge of a parish
  17. ECCLESIASTIC: a priest or member of the clergy
  18. CHAPLAIN: a member of the clergy attached to a private chapel, institution, ship, branch of the armed forces, etc.
  19. THEOLOGIAN: a person who engages or is an expert in theology
  20. CURATE: a member of the clergy engaged as assistant to a vicar, rector, or parish priest
  21. DEACON: an ordained minister of an order ranking below that of priest
  22. REVEREND: used as a title or form of address to members of the clergy
  23. JOSSER: a man, typically an old man or one regarded with some contempt; a clergyman
  24. RABBI: a Jewish scholar or teacher, especially one who studies or teaches Jewish law
  25. RAV: a rabbi, especially one who holds a position of authority or who acts as a personal mentor
  26. TALMUDIST: a person who accepts or supports the doctrines of the Talmud
  27. DIVINE: a cleric or theologian
  28. SKY PILOT: a member of the clergy, especially a military chaplain
  29. BIBLE-BASHER: a person who expounds or follows the teachings of the Bible in an aggressively evangelical way
  30. HOLY JOE: a sanctimonious or pious person
  31. PREACHER: a person who preaches, especially a minister of religion
  32. IMAM: a believer’s faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam
  33. KIRKMAN: a member or adherent of the Church of Scotland
  34. BLACKCOAT: clergyman
  35. ECCLESIAST: a member of any church or assembly
  36. EVANGELIST: a person who seeks to convert others to the Christian faith, especially by public preaching
  37. GOSPELER: a person who zealously teaches or professes faith in the gospel
  38. MISSIONARY: a person sent on a religious mission, especially one sent to promote Christianity in a foreign country
  39. APOSTLE: any important early Christian teacher, especially St. Paul
  40. DISCIPLE: a personal follower of Jesus during his life, especially one of the twelve Apostles
  41. ACOLYTE: a person assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession
  42. VOTARY: a person, such as a monk or nun, who has made vows of dedication to religious service
  43. SIDEKICK: a person’s assistant or close associate, especially one who has less authority than that person
  44. LIEGEMAN: a vassal who owes feudal service or allegiance to a nobleman
  45. PURSUIVANT: a follower or attendant
  46. GROUPIE: an enthusiastic or uncritical follower
  47. JANISSARY: a devoted follower or supporter
  48. RUNNING DOG: a servile follower, especially of a political system
  49. CHELA: a follower and student of a guru
  50. APOLOGIST: a person who offers an argument in defense of something controversial
  51. PROTÉGÉ: a person who is guided and supported by an older and more experienced or influential person
  52. GOD-BOTHERER: a person who persistently promotes religious beliefs to others
  53. MONSIGNOR: the title of various senior Roman Catholic positions, such as a prelate or an officer of the papal court
  54. PRELATE: a bishop or other high ecclesiastical dignitary
  55. PONTIFF: the Pope
  56. PREDICANT: a preaching friar
  57. PRIMATE: the chief bishop or archbishop of a province
  58. PULPITARIAN: an advocate of preaching as essential to worship
  59. PULPITEER: one who speaks in or delivers sermons from a pulpit
  60. SERMONIZER: someone whose occupation is preaching the gospel
  61. BIBLE THUMPER: a person who expounds or follows the teachings of the Bible in an aggressively evangelical way
  62. DEVIL DODGER: a military chaplain
  63. HARP POLISHER: clergyman
  64. TURN-AROUND COLLAR: a member of a religious body officially assigned to give pastoral care at an institution, group, private chapel, etc
  65. SWAMI: a Hindu male religious teacher
  66. ACHARYA: a Hindu or Buddhist spiritual teacher or leader
  67. MAHARISHI: a great Hindu sage or spiritual leader
  68. PANDIT: a Hindu scholar learned in Sanskrit and Hindu philosophy and religion, typically also a practicing priest
  69. MAHATMA: a person in India or Tibet said to have supernatural powers
  70. REBBE: a rabbi, especially a religious leader of the Hasidic sect
  71. ROSHI: the spiritual leader of a community of Zen Buddhist monks
  72. PHILOSOPHER: a person engaged or learned in philosophy, especially as an academic discipline
  73. PRESBYTER: a leader of a local Christian congregation

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